Spices in Madagascar: A Rich Blend of Tradition and Potential


Madagascar, an island about the size of Texas located off the coast of East Africa, is renowned for its rich variety of spices despite being one of the world’s poorest countries and facing severe challenges due to climate change​​. This island nation is the world’s largest supplier of high-quality vanilla, contributing 75-80% of the global supply, thanks to its unique flavor profile​​. Other notable spices include:

  • Ginger, known for its intense flavor and scent​​.
  • Coumarin-free cinnamon, which has gained global interest​​.
  • Turmeric, cultivated for quality over quantity in the humid eastern regions​​.

Madagascar is also a significant producer of cloves, ranking second in production and first in global exports​​, and is home to the rare Voatsiperifery pepper, cherished by French gastronomy experts​​.

Madagascar Spices in Global Value Chains

The journey of Madagascar’s spices from local farms to international markets is exemplified by SCRIMAD, a family-owned business that started in 1993. Initially focusing on livestock and lychees, SCRIMAD has since diversified to include a variety of fruits and spices, exporting these to global markets. The company has overcome challenges such as limited product awareness in Europe and has expanded its offerings to include spices like cloves, cinnamon, black pepper, and vanilla. Canada, for instance, is a major importer of SCRIMAD’s vanilla​​. SCRIMAD has also established a fruit processing company, Madagascar Premium Exotica (MPE), to utilize ‘waste’ fruits for purees and juices, adding sustainability to their value chain​​.

Government Support

The government of Madagascar has played a crucial role in supporting the spice industry. For instance, when French trading companies expressed interest in importing fruits and spices from Madagascar, the government facilitated connections with local producers, leading to the export of lychees and, eventually, spices to Europe. Moreover, the government has recognized and supported companies like SCRIMAD for their contributions to the community and the economy, such as selecting them for a project to fund producers in 2018​​.

Cultural Significance

The spices of Madagascar are deeply entwined with the island’s culture and history. Vanilla, clove, pepper, and combava, among others, are not just culinary ingredients but also emblems of the island’s rich heritage and a testament to its profound respect for nature​​. These spices are integral to various traditional practices, from cooking to medicine, showcasing the diverse applications and significance of each spice in the daily life of Madagascans.

For instance, Combava, a distinctive citrus fruit, is highly valued not just for its culinary uses but also for its therapeutic properties, particularly in treating viral infections like colds, coughs, and flu​​. Pepper, in its various forms – green, white, and black – is celebrated for its versatility in enhancing a wide range of dishes. The “false pepper” or pink berry adds a unique, subtly sweet flavor that complements meats, vegetables, and even desserts​​. Vanilla, often referred to as the “black gold” of Madagascar, is a testament to the island’s agricultural prowess. Grown extensively along the eastern coast, this aromatic spice is sought after worldwide, not just in cuisine but also in beauty and perfumery, representing a fusion of tradition and modern luxury​​.

Combava: A Unique Citrus Fruit

Combava, a citrus fruit, is a distinctive feature of Madagascar’s spice repertoire. Its zest, used in a variety of culinary dishes, is appreciated for its unique taste and therapeutic properties, especially against viral infections like colds and flu​​.

Pepper Varieties and the ‘False Pepper’

Madagascar’s pepper varieties, a cornerstone of its spice heritage, include green, white, and black pepper, each harvested at different stages of maturity to achieve distinct flavors and aromas. This diverse range is a testament to the island’s rich agricultural practices and its ability to cater to varied culinary preferences. The ‘pink berry,’ often referred to as the ‘false pepper,’ stands out for its unique flavor profile. This spice, rounded and slightly sweet on the palate, offers a surprising twist to many recipes. It is versatile, enhancing the taste of meats, raw vegetables, and even desserts, embodying the rich and varied gastronomic culture of Madagascar. This addition to Madagascar’s spice repertoire highlights the island’s commitment to offering a wide array of traditional and innovative spices, catering to gourmets’ tastes globally​​.

Vanilla: The ‘Black Gold’ of Madagascar

Madagascar’s vanilla, grown along the eastern coast, is highly prized for its exceptional fragrance. This ‘black gold’ is integral not only to cooking but also to the realms of beauty, cosmetics, and perfumery, making it a versatile and sought-after spice​​.

Clove: A Versatile Spice

Clove, a prominent spice from Madagascar, is celebrated for its versatility, finding extensive use in culinary and medicinal contexts. It is renowned for its pain-relieving properties, especially in dental and muscle-related ailments. The distinct, rich flavor of clove enhances a variety of dishes, making it a staple in kitchens worldwide. This spice’s exceptional quality, stemming from Madagascar’s unique climate and soil conditions, has solidified its position as a highly sought-after ingredient. Beyond cooking, traditional and alternative medicine often incorporate cloves, underlining their longstanding significance across cultures and their status as a multifaceted, indispensable spice​​.


The spice industry in Madagascar is a vivid example of how local resources, when leveraged with an entrepreneurial spirit and government support, can make a significant impact on the global stage. Despite challenges like climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected demand and operations, companies like SCRIMAD have shown resilience and adaptability. Their success enhances Madagascar’s economic prospects and enriches global cuisine with unique flavors. As Madagascar continues to embrace sustainable practices and quality production, its spice industry stands as a testament to the potential within this rich and diverse island nation.

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